Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is a method employed to separate chemical substances and is dependent on different partitioning occurences between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for dividing elements in a mix.

The sample is transported by a stream of moving gas through a tube that is filled with evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most significant techniques in chemistry because of its simplicity, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most often employed to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to determine certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is also widely used in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, to demonstrate, gas streams that are frequently analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to cancel out undesirable differences.

There are a number of routine analyses that are conducted quickly in environmental and similar fields. As an example, there are a plethora of countries with certain monitor points that are used as a means of consistently assessing emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. In addition, gas chromatography can be employed in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography launches with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, typically a gas that works as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples that are in the liquid state are first vaporized prior to being injected into the stream of carrier gases. After this, the gas stream transfers through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are decided by the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those pieces that have a more significant interaction with the stationary phase are delayed more and thus separate from those with a less significant interaction. As these components begin to be eliminated out of the column with a solvent, they can be counted by a detector and/or collected for additional analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is centered around the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes happens as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is typically utilized when separating ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it comes into contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that vary based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These variations give the mixture components the ability to detach from each other when they use these difference to alter their transit times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When selecting a carrier gas, the selection depends on the nature of the detector being employed and the components that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be of the highest purity and chemically inert towards the sample. To successfully get rid of water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prominent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples are able to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is first injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then transferred to the column. When packed columns are used, the first section of the column is typically utilized as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small componentvof the vaporized sample is moved to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is known as split-injection. This technique is used when hoping to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A method referred to as on-column injection can be used for capillary gas chromatography when trace components could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe immediately into the column. Next, the solvent has the ability to evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is made by a process known as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and detached from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Finally, there is also a technique referred to as loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow constantly through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. Afterwards, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes having a concentration step.

Whether you’re in search of specialty gases to be utilized in gas chromatography, or any other industry that uses specialty gases, PurityPlus has a wide variety of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to assist you with any questions or needs. For further information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 800-637-2222.